Whenever people hear the name of Nepal, many of them think that either Nepal is a very small landlocked country that is surrounded by India and China from all of its sides or it is a country where Mt. Everest is located. Even Nepal occupies a very small percentage of land on the world map, the country still has many variations either geographical, cultural, or natural, and is very rich in these aspects.
Even being a small landlocked country, Nepal and its great geographical structure are far varied from the geographical structure of many countries. Nepal has a very huge geographical varied structure as compared to the total area of Nepal. The area of Nepal is small but the differences in the landforms of Nepal have given it a lot of advantages. There are many unknown things in this small size country that still remains to be known to the rest of the world.
As the geographical structure of Nepal varies from high-belt Himalayas or mountains to the plain surface land called Terai. These variations have really helped Nepal in many aspects. These are just a few basic things that many people know about the geographical structures of Nepal, but as I have said there are a lot more unknown things that many of you don’t know about the geographical conditions and structures of Nepal.
Geographical Structure Of Nepal
Even being a very small landlocked country, you will get fascinated after knowing how Nepal offers one of the most unique geographical diversities than many countries in the world.
It has been said that even though the area of Nepal is actually much the same as that of the state of Florida in the United States Of America, if Nepal could be taken off the face of the Earth and laid flat, its area would be equals to the whole of the United States Of America. However in fact, although occupying just 0.1% of the Earth’s surface, Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of biodiversities due to its unique geographical position and altitudinal variation.
The total area of Nepal measures about 147,516 sq. km that is only 0.1% of the total area of the surface of the Earth. Though it has so small area, within the total length of about 880 Kilometres from East to West, the country varies in width from 150 to 250 Kilometres from North to South. The country lies in Southern Asia approximately between the coordinates 28°00′N 84°00′E.
The elevation of the country ranges from about 59 meters above the sea level in the Terai to the highest point on the Earth, the summit of Mount Everest at 8848 meters all within a distance of about only a hundred and fifty kilometers that results in the climatic conditions ranging from subtropical to arctic. The lowest point of the country is Musharniya of Dhanusha district in the Terai whereas the highest point is the Summit of Mt. Everest. This variation is really tremendous for a small size country.
Topographically, Nepal is divided into three reasons:
- The Himalayas or also known as Himal In The North
- The High Hills Of Mahabharat And Churia Range In The Middle
- The Plain Terai In The South
The Himalayas In The North
The Himalayas in the North represent the Northern border of the country with China and covers about 15% of the total area of Nepal. The altitude of this region of Nepal starts from 3000 meters to above more than 8000 meters including Mt. Everest with a height of 8848 meters. Due to the high altitudes and very cold climate in this region, only about 8% of the total population of the country is living here.
You will be amazed knowing that about more than 90 mountains in this region have heights more than 7000 meters and the height of 8 mountains exceed 8000 meters including Mt. Everest. These 8 mountains are those 8 out of 10 highest peaks on the Earth.
This is amazing, isn’t it?
The Middle Hill
The Middle Hill covers most parts of the country by occupying about 68% of its total area. The Middle Hill is full of the high hills of Mahabharat and Chure Ranges. This region of the country provides homes to almost 45% of the total population. The altitude of this region varies from 1000 meters to 3000 meters.
Due to the good climatic condition in this region, most of the lakes of Nepal and beautiful valleys are located in this middle hills area of the country. The Kathmandu and Pokhara Valleys also lie in this region.
The eastern hills of this region receive the most rainfall than other parts of the country because of the monsoon clouds which come from the Bay Of Bengal. Bay Of Bengal lies very close to this eastern part. This middle hill is also responsible for providing a very good habitat for wildlife such as Leopard, Deer, Bear, Monkeys, Elephant, and over 400 indigenous species of Birds.
The Terai In The South
The Terai is the southern part of Nepal and it is also an extension of the Gangetic Plains of India. The Terai covers 18% of the total land of Nepal that provides excellent farming land as well as space for large industrial areas. The altitude of this region varies from about 100 meters up to about 1000 meters.
Until 1950, the Terai was predominantly an area of heavily malarial subtropical forest inhabited only by the Royal Bengal Tigers, Leopards, Wild Bears, several species of deer, one-horned Rhinos, wild Elephants, and Ghariyal and Magar Crocodiles. But after the eradication of malaria in the 1960s, many people from the middle hills migrated to the Terai and searched a farming land.
Today about 48% of the population occupies this region. So Nepal has very interesting and exciting biodiversity due to its unique geographical position and altitudinal variations.
Probably Nepal is the only country in the world that could provide such an opportunity.
In a period of just two weeks, it is possible to travel from subtropical lowlands to alpine glaciers to experience altitudes from as low as 60m to the base of the highest mountain on Earth.
It is the geographical structure of Nepal that provides the variations in temperature from plus 40 degrees Celcius to minus 40 degrees Celcius and climate ranging from monsoon and humid to dry rain shadow and the frozen zone.
Even occupying only 0.1% of the total land of the world and despite being a small-sized country, Nepal has a large diversity in terms of plants and animals. Nepal provides a home to 2% of all the flowering plant species in the world, 1% of reptiles, 2.5% of amphibian species, 3.7% of butterfly species, 2% of fish species, almost 9% of the world’s population of birds, 3% of all pteridophytes, 6% of all bryophytes, and 4% of all mammal species on Earth, 600 indigenous plant families and 319 species of exotic orchids.
You must be fascinated now by knowing how such a small country can provide habitat to this number of plants and animals. It’s because more than 40% of the total area of Nepal that is about 59,624 sq. km is covered with forests.
We have tried to tell you the unbelievable and some unknown geographical facts of Nepal in a short way. Share this article if you like and let other peoples also know about this amazing geographical structure of Nepal.